Americans agree: parental leave is important. 96% of Americans think that mothers should receive paid time off after having a child, with 75% agreeing maternity leave should be at least 6 paid weeks. In the US, however, there is no federally-mandated paternal leave.
If you are a potential employee interviewing for a new position, you need to make sure the business’s parental leave policies fit your family planning. Here, we’ll cover what to know, what to find out, and how to ask about parental paid time off.
Parental leave is popular for good reason. Studies show that parental leave pay provides physical, emotional, and career benefits to new parents. New mothers get time to recover from the physical strain of childbirth without workplace anxiety. They also are less likely to get left behind in their careers. Fathers get the opportunity to bond with new children, which is good for both dad and baby. Parental leave helps growing families to find their footing.
With parental leave pay, workers receive a certain portion of their salary while they take time off to bond with a new child. Typically, parental leave benefits apply to both parents in a household, although a mother giving birth may be entitled to additional medical leave. Leave for fathers is sometimes called paternity leave (vs maternity leave). Most parental policies can be used for childbirth or adoption.
Family leave is legally mandated in most countries (though not in the US). Leave minimums differ widely between countries. In Sweden, for example, both parents are entitled to 480 days (16 months) of paid leave at about 80% of their salary (with a cap). How does time off work in the US?
While the US has no federally-mandated paid leave, parents to new children may be able to get time off through using a patchwork of federal and state laws and services.
Federal Parental Leave Policy
Since 1993, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has provided 12 weeks of job-protected unpaid leave to certain employees. Employees can use FMLA when they are themselves incapacitated, or when they must care for a parent, spouse, or child with a serious health condition. It is also applicable to new parents.
To qualify, you must have worked at your current place of business for more than a year. Your business must also have 50 or more employees.
State Leave Laws
Leave laws in Eight states —California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Washington— and the District of Columbia provide parental leave pay for employees. (We’ll get more into specifics later on.) Other states default to FMLA.
Depending on where they live, soon-to-be or recent mothers can turn to short-term disability insurance. Usually, they will receive a portion of their salary (usually 50–100%) for a specific number of weeks before or after they give birth. Regulations and eligibility will vary regionally.
Although they may not be legally obligated to, many big corporations may still provide paid leave to attract talent. Netflix famously offers a full year of maternal and paternal leave. Companies like Google, Capital One, and Apple offer 18 weeks. Small businesses may need to keep paid leave in their employee handbook if they hope to retain skilled workers.
Until recently, federal workers have been guaranteed only the standard unpaid leave. A new law going into effect in October 2020 promises 12 weeks of paid leave for all federal employees. While this is an important step forward, the bill has been criticized for its limitations. While most state programs fund paid family leave with a payroll tax increase, this federal bill reduces the employee’s future child tax credit.
State laws governing paid time off for parents may not offer job protection. However, employees may be able to use state protections and federal protections concurrently. Regulations will also vary based on the size of the business.
How much parental leave can an employee take? It will differ by state. Each state will also have its own eligibility requirements and employee parental leave approval process. It is important that employees check their local laws for more information, but for a brief overview, they can start below:
Parental Leave California
Starting in 2021, the Paid Family Leave (PFL) will entitle new or expecting mothers and their partners to 6 weeks of paid, job-protected leave. Paired with California state disability insurance, mothers may be able to get 12 weeks PTO altogether.
Parental Leave Massachusetts
Beginning July 1st, 2021, paid family leave of up to 12 weeks will be guaranteed with Massachusetts’s Paid Family Medical Leave (PFML).
Parental Leave NYC
Employees in New York City (and all of New York State) currently have 10 weeks of paid family leave, which will go up to 12 weeks in 2021. Parental leave New York can be supplemented by short term disability insurance.
Parental Leave Washington State
Under the Paid Family and Medical Leave, parents are entitled to 12 weeks paid leave. Those who give birth to babies may receive 16 weeks of joint medical and maternal leave. Eligible parents receive up to 90% of their pay, up to $1000/week.
Parental leave in Canada is considerably more generous than in the US. Under standard employment insurance maternity and paternity benefits, pregnant employees or new mothers are eligible to take 15 weeks of paid maternity leave. During this time, they receive up to 55% of their salaries, to a maximum of $573 a week. New parents can split additional time off between themselves or give it all to one parent. There are two different plans which offer 45 and 60 weeks of coverage at 55% and 33% of their salaries respectively.
Should You Use Accrued Paid Time Off for Parental Leave?
Many companies ask employees to use their sick days and vacation days during their FMLA-guaranteed 12 weeks off. Some people save up their vacation and sick time in order to cover the time they’re on leave. For example, if an employee may have accrued two weeks of sick time and two weeks of vacation time. They can use these paid time off USA allowances to receive four weeks of payment during their leave.
When is the Right Time to Ask About Paternal Leave Policies?
Don’t give in to the temptation to ask about the business’s parental policy during their job interview. Instead, it may be more strategic to ask about leave after receiving an offer. It is an unfortunate truth that some employers may be less inclined to hire someone interested in starting a family.
How Should Businesses Track Parental Leave?
As you can see, parental leave US polices can get a little complicated, between federal and state laws, short-term disability claims, and company policy. Smart businesses that want to make sure they are in compliance with the law and fair to their employees track parental leave with absence management systems. Employees and supervisors can review PTO accrual, scheduling, and payroll adjustments with one centralized system. This system gives employers peace-of-mind and allows parents to concentrate on what really matters: their growing family.
Written by Valerie Slaughter